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Our temperature center is located in the brain, more precisely in the area of the hypothalamus. It regulates the body’s temperature as well as the feeling for heat and cold.

At cold temperatures the body has a special protective function: One of the first actions the hypothalamus takes: It tightens the blood vessels in your arms, hands, feet, and legs. The blood circulation focusses on the vital organs such as heart, brain, kidneys and digestive organs. At the same time the circulation of the bodyparts, the furthest away from the torso, decreases - the so called "acra".

    These include e.g. the fingers, toes, nose or the ears and this is where we get cold at first.Cold hands and cold feet are typical signs of freezing. The acra are particularly vulnerable to frostbite, more commonly known as childblains. Therefore it is very important to protect toes and fingers from the coldness during termperatures below 0° Celcius. The blood vessels in our body contract, the skin becomes pale and the muscels begin to shake. This process produces heat, the little hair raise and end up in typical "goose bumps".


    1.     The temperature on the muscle performance is highly variable and depends on your own metabolic performance, clothing and environmental conditions. The temperature is an important factor for the function of the skeletal muscles (Bell et al. 2009). A change of temperature of the muscles of the extremities has a significant impact on the muscle performance. This affects the neuromuscular system of young people. Only little information is known on the effects on older persons.

    2.     In young healthy adults, muscle warming enhances the maximum workload of the muscles, while muscle cooling has a negative effect. (Sargeant 1987, Cheung et al., 2004).

    3.     The temperature affects both the contractile characteristics as well as the membrane properties of the muscle fibers. An increased conduction velocity of the muscle fiber membrane and an increased ATP throughput is responsible for increasing the speed at an elevated temperature. This does increase the rate of the cross-bridge cycles (Gray et al. 2006).

    4.     The increased high-speed strength is explained by a changing recruitment of the types of muscle fibers. The fast type II fibers are involved at higher temperatures and the slower type I fibers at lower termperatures (Ranatunga et al. 1987).

    5.     An increased relaxation time due to later recreation of the firm cross bridge between actin and myosin is discussed - whereby a decrease of the high-speed strength could be explained.


    1.     The tests with the “Nottingham Power Rig” showed that the test persons could perform the movements (hip and extension) offhand. In this way a safe and a reliable measurement of the production of elasticity was guaranteed.

    2.     There was no significant difference in the force development during leg stretching at 15° in comparison with 25° in this group of test persons. An impairment of the speed could not be demonstrated as described in other studies (Bergh et al. 1979, Blomstrand et al. 1984, Oksa et al. 1997).

    3.     When comparing the impaired performance of this study with the results from other studies it must be conceded that they especially examined dynamic movements such as sprinting and jumping.

    4.     For these movements, a clear limitation of performance was observed when the muscle temperature was lowered (2-10 % per 1°C decreased muscle temperature).


    Incorrect training or overload are the release button for a muscle injury.

    Furthermore there are additional causes and risk factors which can lead to muscle injuries.

    • cold weather and rapid cooling
    • inappropriate training clothes
    • foot deformity
    • wrong or new footgear
    • muscle shortening or muscle induration
    • lack of regeneration
    • fast increase of training performance
    • less regeneration after muscle injuries
    • lack of common salt or mineral deficiency
    • signs of fatigue